Sit Cog Readings for EPSY 6550 M. Young


The University of Connecticut

Program in Cognition, Instruction, & Learning Technologies

Michael F. Young, Ph.D.

last updated  19 Jan 2024

EPSY 6550: Doctoral Seminar in Situated Cognition – Spring 2024 class meets Thursdays at 4:30 starting Jan 18

Jan 18 The General contention for the importance of context
Introduction to the ideas of situated learning and situated cognition (Collaborate + Slide Deck, set up meeting times/date for the semester)

Jan  25

Bredo, E. (1994).
Brown, J.S., Collins, A, & Duguid, P. (1989). [MFY]
Smarty Plants Feb 13 2018 NPR Radio (30 minute podcast)
Clancey (1995) Tutorial on Situated Cognition
Wikipedia page on Situated Cognition
Feb 1
Summary of Anchored Instruction at Cortland ID site.
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt.(1990).
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1993).
Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1994).
Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). [MFY]
Feb 8
Lave & Wenger book (1990). [particularly chapter 3]
Barsalou (2008, 2010).
Hutchins 1993 Chapter on Quartermasters
Muller (2021) on Merleau-Ponty and Philosophy [MCho + maybe AndrewC]
Feb 15
Greeno, J. G. (1989).
Greeno, J. G. (1997) with J. R. Anderson rejoinder.
Turvey on Haptics
Sensory Deprivation (disembodied thinking)
Cognitive concepts like effort and ability as “effectivities” (Muenks & Miele 2017)
Wilson (2015) Embodied Cognition. from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Halák (2021) Embodied Mathematics
Neidenthal (2007) Embodied Emotion in Science  [Muireann NC]
Feb 22
Greeno, J. G. (1998).
Maglio et al. (2000).
Griffin, M. M. (1995).
Zachary et al. (2013).
Metz, K. E. (1995). [SarahG]
Feb 29
The strong ecological psychology contention
Charles (2017) The essential elements of a evolutionary threory of perception
Cognitive Science (1993) 17 (1) [link to online full text within domain only]
Dotov, Nie & deWit (2012).
Young (2004b). [KrisS]
Mar 7
Gibson, E. J. (2000)
Adolph & Kretch (2015)
Greeno, J. G. (1994).
Gibson, J. J. (1986).
Wilson (2002).
Markman & Brendl (2006)
Witt & Riley (2014) [SteveS + Vaish]
Mar 10-16 Spring Recess
Mar 21
Beghetto (2016) Creativity and Teaching as Situated
Lowenstien (1994) Psychology of Curiosity
Engstrom Activity Theory
Vallée-Tourangeau 2019. Insight out: Making creativity visible [Vaish + Mike (Activity Theory support)]
(possible Personal Challenge Assignment time)
Mar 28
Kugler, Shaw, Vicente, Kinsella-Shaw (1991).
Shaw, R. E., Kadar, E., Sim, M. & Repperger, D. W. (1992). (concentrate on modeling strategy instead of math proofs)
Richardson et al (2008). (6 principle + return to the embodiment premise)
Barab & Roth (2006).
Shaw & Kinsella-Shaw (i2007). [Tori]
Apr  4
Young, M. F. , Kulikowich, J. M., & Barab, S. A. (1997).
Young, M. & McNeese, M. (1995).Languaging, audio acts and speech acts
Dent, C. (1990).[TBA]
Linell. P. (2009). Dialogicality and alternity, extending our perceptual horizons through others
Hodges, B. (2009 & 2014). Languaging, Values-realizing, orienting, integrating, & way-finding
Thibault’s (2004) book (just the main premise)
van Dijk, M., Kroesburgen, E. H., Blom, E., & Leseman, P. P. M. (2018). Bilingualism and creativity: Towards a situated approach. J. of Creative Behavior. [Muireann NC, possibly Manuela & Tami D]
Apr 11
Related contexts concerning
complex systems

Roschelle, J. & Clancey, W. J. (1992). Autonomous systems (robots)
Anderson & Stillman (2013). Student Teaching
Clancey, W. J. (1994) and related
example from Wolff-Michael Roth (1996) Diffusions in the classroom
Moussaid et al 2009. Autocatakinetic behavior of flocks, swarms & crowds
Shephard, R. N. (1984). [Tori + Vaish, all interested]

Apr 18

Issues of Transfer
Whitehead, A.N. (1929).
Newton (2017) Understanding and Self Organization
Young (2004). [MCho]
Engle (2006). & Greeno (2006).
Apr 25
Final Class: Assessment of Situated Learning
Shaw, Effken, Fajen, Garrett, & Morris (1997) [Mike]
Apr 26 All assignments due:  Personal Final, Group Multimedia, & Personal/Philosophy Statement


Adolph, K. E., Kretch, K. S. (2015). Gibson’s theory of perceptual learning. In J. D. Wright (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, (2nd ed., Vol.10, pp. 127-134). New York, NY: Elsevier.

Anderson L. M. & Stillman, J. A. (2013). Student teaching’s contribution to preservice teacher development: Review of Research focused on the preparation of teachers for urban and high-needs contexts. Review of Education Research, 83(1), 3-69.

Barab, S. A. & S., Roth, W.-M. (2006). Intentionally-Bound Systems and Curricular-Based Ecosystems: An Ecological Perspective on Knowing. Educational Researcher, 35(5), 3-13.

Barsalou, L.W. (2010). Grounded cognition: Past, present, and future. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2, 716-724.

Barsalou, L.W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 617-645.

Beghetto, R. A. (2016). Creative openings in the social interactions of teaching. Creativity, 3 (2) 261-273.
Bereiter, C. (1991). Implications of connectionism for thinking about rules. Educational Researcher, 20 (3), 10-16.

Borrett, D, Kelly, S, & Kwan, H. (2000).  Bridging embodied cognition and brain function: The role of phenomenology. Philosophical Psychology. 13 (2), 261-266.

Bransford, J. D., Goldman, S. R. and Vye, N. J. (1991). Making a difference in people’s abilities to think: Reflections on a decade of work and some hopes for the future. In L. Okagaki and R. J. Sternberg (Eds.) Directors of Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bredo, E. (1994). Reconstructing educational psychology: Situated cognition and Deweyian pragmatism. Educational Psychologist, 29(1), 23-35. (similar paper online)

Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. Journal of The Learning Sciences, 2(2), 141–178.

Brown, J.S., Collins, A, & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning, Educational Researcher, Jan-Feb, 32-42.

Capra F. (1996). The web of life. New York: Anchor Books. [ISBN 0-384-47675-2]

Charles, E. P.  (2017). The Essential Elements of an Evolutionary Theory of Perception, Ecological Psychology, 29(3), 198-212, DOI: 10.1080/10407413.2017.1330120

Clancey, W. (1995). A tutorial on situated learning. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers and Education (Taiwan). Downloaded from ResearchGate

Clancey, W. J., & Roschelle, J. (1991). Situated Cognition: How representations are created and given meaning, To appear in Educational Psychologist.

Clancey, W. J. (1997). Remembering controversies (Chapter 3). Situated Cognition: On Human Knowledge and Computer Representation. New York: Cambridge U. Press. (ISBN# 0-521-44871-9)

Clancey,W.J. (1994) Situated cognition:  How representations are created and given meaning.  In: R. Lewis and P. Mendelsohn, (eds) Lessons from Learning,  Amsterdam: North-Holland. 231-42. (Proceedings of the IFIP TC3/WG3.3 Working Conference on Lessons from Learning. Archamps, France, 6-8 September, 1993.)

Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1990). Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition. Educational Research. 19 (6), 2-10.

Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1993). Anchored instruction and situated cognition revisited. Educational Technology March Issue, 52-70.

Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1994). From visual word problems to learning communities: Changing conceptions of cognitive research. In K. McGilly (Ed.) Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom proactice.
Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

Cognitive Science (1993) 17 (1), Jan-March. Special Issue: Situated Action. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.) Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Dent, C. (1990). An ecological approach to language development: An alternative functionalism. Developmental Psychobiology. 23(7) 670-703.

di Sessa, A. A. (1988). What will it mean to be “educated” in 2020? In R. S. Nickerson & P. P. Zodhiates (Eds.), Technology in education: Looking toward 2020. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Dotov, D. G, Nie, L, & de Wit, M. M. (2012). Understanding affordances: History and contemporary developments of Gibson’s central concept. AVANT, III(2), 28-39.

Engle, R. A. (2006). Framing interactions to foster generative learning: A situative explanation of transfer in a community of learners classroom. J. of the Learning Sciences 15(4) 451-500.

Gibson, E. J., & Pick, A. D. (2000). An ecological approach to perceptual learning and development. NY, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gibson, J. J. (1986). The ecological approach to visual perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Glaser, R. (1991). Expertise and assessment. In M.C. Wittrock & E.L.Baker (Eds.) Testing and Cognition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, pp.17-30.

Greeno, J. G. (1998). The situativity of knowing, learning, and research. American Psychologist, 53(1), 5-26.

Greeno, J. G. (1997). On claims that answer the wrong question. Educational Research, 26(1), 5-17. See also Donmoyer, R. Introduction:This Issue: Refocusing on Learning (pp. 4, 34) and Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. Rejounder: Situative versus cognitive perspectives: Form versus substance (.. 18-22) same issue.

Greeno, J. G. (1994). Gibson’s affordances. Psychological Review, 101(2), 236-342.

Greeno, J. G. (1989). A perspective on thinking. American Psychologist, 44, 134-141.

Greeno, J. G. (2006). Authoratative, accountable positioning and connected, general knowing: Progressive themes in understanding transfer. J. of the Learning Sciences 15(4) 539-550.

Greeno, J. G. Mathematical and Scientific thinking in classrooms and other situations. (39-61).

Greeno, J. G, & the MSMTAPG (1998). The situativity of knowing, learning, and research. American Psychologist, 53(1), 5-16.

Griffin, M. M. (1995). You can’t get there from here: Situated learning, transfer, and map skills. Contrmporary Educational Psychology, 20, 65-87.

Gruber, J., Lai-Chong, L., Mandl, H., & Renkl, A. (1996). Situated learning and transfer. In P. Reimann & H. Spada (Eds.) Learning in humans and machines: Toward an interdisciplinary learning science. Oxford: Pergamon.

Hirose, N. (2002). An ecological approach to embodiment and cognition. Cognitive Systems Research(3), 289 – 299.

Hodges, B. (2009). Ecological pragmatics: Values, dialogical arrays, complexity, and caring. Pragmatics & Cognition, 17(3), 628–652.

Hodges, B. H. (2014). Righting language: a view from ecological psychology. Language Sciences, 41, 93-103.

House, E. R. (1991). Realism in research. Educational Researcher, 20 (6), 2-9.

Kirsh, D., & Maglio, P. (1994). On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action. Cognitive Science, 18, 513-549.

Kirshner, D., & Whitson, J. A. (1998). Obstacles to understanding cognition as situated. Educational Researcher, 27(8), 22-28.

Kugler, Shaw, Vicente, Kinsella-Shaw (1991). The role of attractors in the self-organization of intentional systems. In R. R. Hoffman and D. S. Palermo (Eds.) Cognition and the Symbolic Processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Linell, P. (2009). Rethinking language, mind and world dialogically:interactional and contextual theories of human
sense-making. downloaded April 9 2010 from

Lowenstien. G. (1994) Psychology of curiosity: A review and reinterpretation. Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 75-98.

Maglio, P. P., Matlock, T., Raphaely, D., Chernicky, B., & Kirsh, D. (2000). Interactive skill in scrabble. Downloaded 23 Feb  2012 from

Markman, A. B. & Brendl, C. M. (2005). Constraining theories of embodied cognition. Psychological Science, 16(1). 6-10.

Metz, K. E. (1995). Reassessment of developmental constraints on children’s science instruction. Review of Educational Research, 65 (2), 93-127.

Miles, L. K., Nind, L. K. & Turvey, Macrae, C. N. (2010). Moving through time.  Psychological Science,

Muller, R. M. (2021). Merleau-Ponty and the radical sciences of mind. Synthese, 198(9), 2243 – 2277.

Neidenthal, P. M. (2007). Embodying emotion. Science, 316, 1002-1005.

Neisser, U. (2000). Memory: What are the important questions? In U. Neisser & I. E Hyman Memory Observed: Remembering in Natural Contexts. Worth Publishers: NY, NY.

Perfetto, G. A., Bransford, J.D. & Franks, J. J. (1983). Constraints on access in a problem solving context. Memory and Cognition, 11(1), 24-31.

Peterson, P. L. & Knapp, N. F. (1993). Inventing and reinventing ideas: Constructivist teaching and learning in mathematics. In ASCD 1993 Yearbook of Challenges and Achievements. ASCD Publisher.

Robins, P. & Aydede, M. (2009). Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. (P. Robbins & M. Aydede, Eds.). Boston: Cambridge U. Press.

J. & Clancey, W. J. (1992). Learning as social and neural. Educational Psychologist. 27(4), 435-453.

Rogoff, B, & Lave, J. (1999). Everyday Cognition: Its Development in Social Context. New York: iUniverse.

Roth, W-M. (1996). Knowledge diffusion in a grade 4-5 classroom during a unit on civil engineering: An analysis of a classroom community in terms of its changing resources and practices. Cognition and Instruction, 14(2), 179-220

Salomon, G., Perkins, D. N., & Globerson, T. (1991). Partners in cognition: Extending human intelligence with intelligent technologies. Educational Researcher, 20(3), 2-9.

SCANS: U.S. Dept of Labor (1992). Executive Summary

Schoenfeld, A. H. & Herrmann, D. J. (1982). Problem perception and knowledge structure in expert and novice mathematical problem solvers. JEP: Learning Memory and Cognition, 8 (5), 484-494.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1988). Problem solving in context(s). In R. I. Charles & E. A. Silver (Eds.), The teaching and assessing of mathematical problem solving. Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.

Scott, Douglass J. Online WWW Situated Learning Resources.

Shanon, B. (1990). Non-representationl frameworks for psychology: A typology. European J. of Cognitive Psychology, 2(1), 1-22.

Shaw, R. E. Effken, J. A., Fajen, B. R., Garrett, S. R., & Morris, A. (1997). An ecological approach to the on-line assessment of problem-solving paths: Principles and applications. Instructional Science, 25, 151-166.

Shaw, R. E., Kadar, E., Sim, M. & Repperger, D. W. (1992). The intentional spring: A strategy for modeling systems that learn to perform intentional acts. J. of Motor Behavior 24(1), 3-28.

Shaw. R. E., & Kinsella-Shaw, J. (in press 2007). The survival value of informed awareness. Journal of Consciuosness Studies.

Shaw, R. E., & Turvey, M. T. (1999). Ecological Foundations of Cognition: II. Degrees of freedom and conserved quantities in animal-environment system. J. of Consciousness Studies, 6(11-12), 111-123.

Shephard, R. N. (1984). Ecological constraints on internal representation: Resonant kinematics of perceiving, imagining, thinking, and dreaming. Psychological Reveiw, 91, 417-447.

Thibault, P. J. (2004). Agency and Consciousness in Discourse: Self-other Dynamics as a Complex System. London and New York: Continuum.

Vallée-Tourangeau & March, P. L. (2019). Insight out: Making creativity visible. J. of Creative Behavior 0(0), 1-19. DOI: 10.1002/jocb.409

Vicente, K. J. (1999). Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward safe, productive, and healthy computer-based work. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Vicente, K. J. & Wang, J. H. (1998). An ecological theory of expertise effects in memory recall. Psychological Review, 105(1), 33-57.

Vye, N. J., Goldman, S. R., Voss, J. F., Hmelo, C., Williams, S., & CTGV. (1997). Complex mathematical problem solving by individuals and dyads. Cognition and Instruction, 15(4), 435-484.

Whitehead, A.N. (1929). The aims of education and other essays. New York: MacMillan.

Wilson, M. (2002). Six views of embodied cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9 (4), 625-636.

Wilson, R.A. and Foglia, L. (2017) Embodied Cognition. In: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Spring 2017 Edition Edition, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, Stanford.

Young, M.  (2004a). An Ecological Description of Video Games in Education. Proceedings of the International Conference on Education and Information Systems Technologies and Applications (EISTA), July 22, Orlando, FL, pp.203-208.

Young, M. F. (2004b). An ecological psychology of instructional design: Learning and thinking by perceiving-acting systems. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology, 2nd Ed. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Young, M. & McNeese, M. (1995). A Situated Cognition Approach to Problem Solving. In P. Hancock, J. Flach, J. Caid,
& K. Vicente (Eds.) Local Applications of the Ecological Approach to Human Machine Systems.(pp.359-391).Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Young, M. F. , Kulikowich, J. M., & Barab, S. A. (1997). The unit of analysis for situated assessment. Instructional Science, 25(2), 133-150.

Zachary, D. A., Palmer, A. M., Beckham, S. W. & Surkan, P. J. (2013). A framework for understanding grocery purchasing in a low-income urban environment. Qualitative Health Research, 23(5), 665-678.

Required Course Texts:

Dewey, J. (1938,1963). Experience & Education, New York: Collier Macmillan. (ISBN# 0-02-013660-9)

Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. New York: Cambridge U. Press (ISBN# 0-521-42374-0)

Additional References of interest

Bruner, J. (1986). Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Harvard U. Press.

Coulter, J. (1989). Mind in Action. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. (pp.9-54)

Chaiklin, S. & Lave, J. (1993). Understanding Practice: Perspectives on Activity and Context. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press.

Clark, A. (1997). The dynamical challenge. Cognitive Science, 21(4), 461-481.

Clark, Andy. (1997). Being there: Putting brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (ISBN# 0-262-53156-9)

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. NY: Harper and Row.

Determan, D. K. & Sternberg, R. J. (1993). Transfer on Trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. ISBN# 0-89391-826-1

Edelman, G. M. (1992). Bright air, brilliant fire: on the matter of the mind. New York, NY: BasicBooks.

Gibson, E. J. (1969). Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Gibson, E. J. (1991). An odyssey in learning and perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Heidegger, M. (1927a/ 1962). Being and Time. New York: Harper and Row.

Heidegger, M. (1927b) The Basic Problem of Phenomenology. New York: Harper and Row.

Hutchins, E. (1996). Cognition in the Wild. Boston, MA: MIT Press.

Kelso, J. A. S. (1995). Dynamic Patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 0-262-11200-0

Kirshner, D. & Whitson, J. A. (1997) Situated Cognition: Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum (ISBN# 0-8058-2038-8)

Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press. (pp. xi – 11).

Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

McLellan, H. (1996). Situated Learning Perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Menzies, T. (1996). Appropriate responses to the challenge of situated cognition for knowledge acquisition. Paper presented to KAW Conference 11 July 1996.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Reed, E. S. (). Encountering the World. Book available online at,+encountering+the+world&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result#PPP1,M1

Richardson, M. J., Shockley, K., Fajen, B. R., Riley, M. A., & Turvey, M. T. (2008). Ecological psychology: Six principles for an embodied-embedded approach to behavior. In P. Calvo & T. Gomila (Eds.), Handbook of cognitive science: An embodied approach (pp. 161. New York: Elsevier.

Saxe, G. B. (1991). Culture and Cognitive Development: Studies in mathematical understaning. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Shanon, B. (1988). Semantic representation of meaning: A critique. Psychological Bulletin, 104(1), 70-83.

Shaw, R. E., Kadar, E., Sim, M., & Repperger, D. W. (1992). The intentional spring: A strategy for modeling systems that learn to perform intentional acts. J. of Motor Behavior, 24 (1), 3-28.

Shyu, H. (1997). Anchored instruction for Chinese students: Enhancing attitudes toward mathematics. Int’l J. of Instuctional Media, 24(1), 55-60.

Siegler, R. S. & Crowley, K. (1991). The microgenetic method. American Psychologist. 46 (6), 606-620.

Slezak, P. Situated cognition: Empirical issue, ‘paradigm shift’ or conceptual confusion? 806-811.

Sun, R. (2002). Duality of the Mind: a Bottom-up Approach Toward Cognition.Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Thelan, E. & Smith, L. (1994). A Dynamic Sytems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

Tighe, T. J. & Tighe, L. S. (1978). A perceptual view of conceptual development. In R. D. Walk & H. L. Pick (Eds.) Perception and Experience, New York: Plenum Press.

Turvey, M. T., & Shaw, R. E. (1999). Ecological foundations of cognition: I. Symemetry and specificity of animal-environment systems. J. of Consciousness Studies, 6(11-12), 95-110.

Van Lier, L. (2004). The Ecology and Semiotics of Language Learning. New York. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Internationalization of higher psychological functions. In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.), Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Young, M. F. (1993). Instructional design for situated learning. Educational Technology Research and Development. 41 (1), 43-58.

Young, M. F. & McNeese, M. (1993). A situated cognition approach to problem solving with implications for computer-based learning and assessment. In G. Salvendy & M. J. Smith (Eds.) Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics, 19B. Human-Computer Interaction: Software and Hardware Interfaces. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Young, M., Van Haneghan, J., Barron, L., Williams, S., Vye, N., & Bransford, J. (1991). A problem-solving approach to
mathematics instruction using an embedded data videodisc. In A. L. Costa (Ed.). Developing minds: Programs for Teaching Thinking, Revised Edition, Volume 2. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.